April  18-19. On the way to physically correct indentation analyses. Arbeitskreis Tagung Eindringversuch, Schweinfurt.

März 15-16. Basic physics disproves the obligatory ISO-14577 standards: a dilemma for all indentation mechanics. Keynote 23rd International Conference on Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, London, UK.
September 12. Dilemma between Physics and ISO Standards in Indentations. Keynote, 8th International Colloquium Micro-Tribology, Warsaw Poland.

August 01. Much higher resolution below the diffraction limit than the more recent stochastic techniques for unstained materials. Keynote, International Conference on Nanobiotechnologies & Nanoregulations, Chicago, USA.

July 31. ISO violates the first energy law including hardness/elasticity standards from indentations: What can be done?
Keynote,. International Conference on Nanobiotechnologies & Nanoregulations, Chicago, USA.

June 12-14.  Physics versus non-physical ISO/NIST standards in nano, micro, and the numerous macro-techniques are detrimental for daily life: what can be done? Workshop June 13: 9th World Congress on Materials Science and Engineering, Rome, Italy

March 02-03 . Thousand waste-free solid-state syntheses from 2 mmol to industrial scale and processes with 100% yield in 26 reaction types. Keynote March 03: 2nd European Organic Chemistry Congress, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

February 20-21. Iso-standards 14577 violate the first energy law: Can we live with that?  Keynote February 20: Annual Congress on Materials Research and Technology, Berlin, Germany.

October 23-27.  ISO standards for (nano)Indentations Must Be Changed for Being Compatible with Physics. Invited October 26, Materials Science and Technology MS & T 16, Salt Lake City, Utah USA.

October 20-21. Local apertureless  SNOM for biomaterials without staining much higher resolving, more versatile, easier, older, and cheaper than stochastic STED, PALM, etc.  Keynote October 20, 4th Int. Conf. on Bioprocess and Bio Therapeutics, Houston, Texas USA.

October 17-19. Crystal structure and organic solid-state reactioms. Keynote October 17, Applied Crystallography, Houston, Texas USA.

August 01-02. Dilemma between ISO and physics in (nano)indentations. Keynote August 1, 9th Nano Congress for Next Generation, Manchester, UK.

July 25-27. How are wastes entirely avoided in solid-state productions? Keynote July 27, 2nd World Congress on Recycling 2016, Berlin, Germany.

June 13-15.  Important consequences of the exponent 3/2 for pyramidal/conical indentations - New definitions of physical hardness and modulus;  Keynote June 14, 5th World Conference on Materials Science and Engineering 2016, Alicante, Spain.

April 21-23. The exponent 3/2 instead of 2 on h for conical/pyramidal indentation: physical foundation and unprecedented applications; Keynote April 21, Global Nanotechnology Congress and Expo 2016, Dubai, UAE.  

April 8. Development of ultrafine-grained, creep-resitant aluminum alloys by high-energy milling.
9th German-Japanese/9th International Symposium on Nanostructures OZ-16, Wenden, Germany.

April 8. Mechanochemistry and solid-state syntheses by reactive milling with up-scale. 9th German-Japanese/9th International Symposium on Nanostructures OZ-16, Wenden, Germany.

April 5-6. The physical foundation of the exponent 3/2on h instead of 2 for conical/pyramidal indentations, and the consequences for mechanical parameters including H and Er;  ISO; FD-12 der AWT und des Arbeitskreises Härteprüfung der DGM, an der Physicalisch Technischen Bundesanstalt PTB Braunschweig, Germany.

March 4-6. The exponent 3/2 instead of 2 on h for conical/pyramidal indentation: physical foundation and unprecedented applications; Singapore-BITs 2nd World Congress of Smart Materials- 2016.


December 3,  Apertureless shear-force SNOM, better than STED, PALM, etc. in all respects, Physics Seminar lecture, University of Oldenburg, Germany.

November 16-18, The exponent 3/2 instead of 2 on h for conical/pyramidal indentations: physical foundation and unprecedented applications; Keynote November 17, 5th Int. Conf. on Nanotek&Expo, San Antonio, USA

August 30-September 2, Apertureless enhanced reflexion SNOM: earlier, easier, higher resolving, cheaper, more versatile than STED; GDCH Wissenschaftsforum Chemie, Dresden 2015 - Chemie verbindet.

August 10-13, Quantitative nanomechanics - new physics;  International Symposium on Energy Challenges and Mechanics, ISECM 2015, Aberdeen, Scotland.

July 12-17, Fast molecular solid-state reactions by proper experimentation; The 22nd International Conference on the Chemistr of the Organic Solid State, ICCOSS XXII Niigata, Japan.

May 10-14, Phase transition energies and activation energies from nothing else than indentation loading curves - together with the physical foundation of the exponent 3/2 on h instead of formerly 2 for pyramidal/conical indentation loading curves. 12th International Conference on the Mechanical Behavior of Materials ICM12, Karlsruhe, Germany.

April 21-23, The physical foundation of FN = k h
^3/2 for conical/pyramidal indentations. Nanobrücken 2015 - A Nanomechanical Testing Workshop, Potsdam, Germany.



March,26-28,  Temperature dependent phasetransition energies from loading curves, Nanobrücken IV 2014 Nanomechanical Testing Workshop, INM Leibnitz Institute for New Materials, Saarbrücken, Germany

February 27-28, lecture on  Enegetics in indentations with applications, AK Sonde, Mechanische Charakterisierung in kleined Dimensionen, MPI für Eisenforschung, Düsseldorf, Germany

October 6-11, Penetration resistance: the quantitative energetics in nano- and micro-mechanical testing, I#75 in Nanomechanical Testing in Materials Research and Development IV, Olhao, Portugal
June 17-20, Nutshells' Cellular Structures: Bionics Models for Improved Constructions, 17th International Conference in Composite Structures (ICCS17), Porto

March 20-22, Penetration resistance for the energetics in pyramidal/conical and spherical loading curves,
including long-range and phase transition energies, Nanobrücken-Dresden a Nanomechanical Testing Workshop
September 9-13, Penetration Resistance; the Reinvention of Nano-Indentation, 6th Int. Colloquium Micro-Tribology 2012, Warschau-Osieck

March 22-23, Penetration Resistance; Nanobrücken II,
a Nanomechanical Testing Workshop, Saatrbrücken

July 3-8, Universal penetration resistance and penetratability from pyramidal nanoindentations, International Indentation Workshop 4 IIW4  in Seoul, Korea, on July 4th, 2011

Febr. 26-27, 2011,
SNOM on rough and natural surfaces, International Symposium on Bioimaging and Surface Sciences, University of Hyogo, Japan
Aug. 30 - Sept 01, 2010,
Nanoindentation loading curves with conical and pyramidal tips strictly go with h3/2, but not with Hertzian h2, IV-354, Seeing at the Nanoscale VIII, Basel, Schweiz

G. Kaupp: Pressure relief  rather than minimal atomic and molecular movements in molecular and salts' solid-state reactions also in relation to bond-breaking mechanochemistry; link to PDF document

Febr. 28-March 02, 2010,
The chemistry of  reactive milling with metals and mechanical metal to metal alloying, Proceedings of the 3rd German-Japanese Symposium on Nanostructures - 3rd International Symposium on Nanostructures, OZ-10, , Wenden/Olpe, Germany

Febr. 25-26, 2010, The exponent 3/2 of nanoindentation loading curves with conical and pyramidal tips, Proceedings of the  Nanobrücken Nanomechanical Testing Workshop and Hysitron User Meeting, INM Saarbrücken, Germany 


March 5th  2009, Kansai University, Japan, Foundation and merits of mechanochemistry as compared to
molecular solid-state chemistry

March 4th  2009
, Kyoto University, Japan, Foundation and merits of molecular solid-state chemistry and of

March 1st - 3rd 2009, 2nd German-Japanese Symposium on Nanostructures and 2nd International Symposium
on Nanostructures OZ-09, Kuratsu University, Japan, Foundation, Practice,  and Future of Reactive Milling


December 16th, GDCh Kolloquium, University of Siegen, Solid-state reactions: superior green chemistry and more

March 3rd - 5th 2008, 1st German-Japanese Symposium on Nanostructures and 1st International Symposium
on Nanostructures OZ08, Siegen, Reactive Milling for Environmental Production


December 9th – 13th 2007, Second International Conference on Mechanics of Biomaterials & Tissues, Lihue, Kaua’i, Hawaii, 
Nanomechanics of 3D-microscopically studied nut and seed shells
September 23rd – 27th 2007, Colloquium Spectroscopicum Internationale XXXV, Symposium 6 Surface Enhanced 
Spectroscopy, Xiamen, China, Tip Induced Chemical Contrast by Radiation Enhancement
July 2nd  – 7th  2007, Eleventh European Symposium on Organic Reactivity (ESOR XI) Faro, Portugal, 
Waste-free synthesis and production all across chemistry with the benefit of self-assembled crystal packings

March 1st - 2nd 2007, 8. Workshop Rasterkraftmikroskopie in der Werkstoffwissenschaft, Chemnitz, Macro-, micro- und nano-Eigenschaften von harten Nussschalen


November 9th 2006, Solid-state chemical production, Jena University, Germany

October 27th 2006, Nanomechanical testing of composite hardshells, Ismaning/Munich, Germany

October 4th -6th 06, 36. Kolloquium EDO “Arbeitskreis für Elektronenoptische Direktabbildung und Analyse von Oberflächen”, Wuppertal,  Nanotechniken zur Früherkennung und Analyse chemisch-physikalischer Veränderungen an vielgebrauchten Polymeren

September 14th 06, 1st Int. IUPAC Conference on Green -Sustainable Chemistry, Dresden, Quantitative large-scale syntheses without solvents for sustainable production giving pure product while avoiding purifying workup

August 20th-25th 06, 18th International Conference on Physical Organic Chemistry, ICPOC, Warschau, Polen, Prediction of solid-gas and solid-solid reactions with molecular crystals.

Dez. 17th 05, Internat. Chem. Congress of Pacific Basin Societies 2005, Honolulu, Hawaii, Organic Solid State Chemistry: Structure, Synthesis and Reactivity (ORGN #323), Quantitative large-scale syntheses without auxiliaries for sustainable production (lecture no. 688)

Dec. 15th 05, Internat. Chem. Congress of Pacific Basin Societies 2005, Honolulu, Hawaii, Supramol. Photochem. (ORGN #236), Crystal packing for the determination of reactivity in solid-state photochemistry (lecture no. 75).

September, 26th-28th, n-ABLE2005, Saarbrücken, SNOM on rough "real-world" surfaces

August 30-September 1st, 2005, Nanomech 6, Hueckelhoven,  Possibilities of studying phase transformation upon micro- and nanoindentation by synchrotron radiation microdiffraction

  • Jul. 24th- 29th, Matrix 2005, Recent Progress and Developments in the Physics and Chemistry of Matrix-Isolated Species, Funchal, Portugal, Spectroscopy and applications of matrix isolated one- and bi-photonic reactions at 4 - 83 K.

  • May, 9th-11th, n-ABLE2005, Saarbrücken, SNOM on rough "real-world" surfaces

  • Apr. 11th-13th, 8th Intern. Conf. on Chemistry and its Role in Development ICCRD'8, Mansoura, Egypt, Quantitative Solvent-free Organic Synthesis

  • Feb. 20th-25th, Solar'05 and Enpho'05, Luxor, The application of confined light to photochemistry, physics, biology, medicine and the physical basics of scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM)

  • 2004
  •  Oct. 13-15th, Seeing at the Nanoscale II, Grenoble, Nanoscratching with AFM detection, a quantitative technique for nanoscience   

  •  Sep. 07-09th, 5th European Symposium on Nanomechanical Testing, Hückelhoven, Germany; Quantitative Evaluation of NanoIndents and NanoScratches; Do we need more reliable Standards for mechanical testing?   Powerpoint-File

  •  Aug. 26-31th, European Crystallographic Meeting ECM22, Budapest, Hungary; Nanoscratching: a New Technique for Applied Crystallography.   Powerpoint-File

  • 2003
  • Sep. 23th, Hückelhoven, 4th European Symposium on nano-mechanical Testing, Nanoscratching on Crystal Surfaces

  • Sep. 21th-24th, XIX - CONGRESSO DA SOCIEDADE BRASILEIRA DE MICROSCOPIA E MICROANÁLISE (SBMM) CAXAMBU, Substrate effect on latex serum solute distribution investigated by SNOM: an evidence of particle anisotropy Teixeira-Neto, E.; Kaupp, G,; Galembeck, F. M0307-001

  • Sep. 15th-19th, 11th Int. Conf. On Surface and Colloid Science, Iguassu Falls Parana, Brazil, ICROSCOPY EVIDENCE ON LATEX PARTICLE HETEROGENEITY AND CLUSTERING IN FILMS Érico Teixeira-Neto, Gerd Kaupp and Fernando Galembeck

  • Aug. 24th, Durban, 21st European Crystallographic Meeting, invited lecture, Solid-state reactions with molecular crystals

  • Jul. 13th- 18th, Sydney, ICCOSS 16, Gas-solid diazotation of a 2-amino-phenylsulfanyl derivative and azo dye syntheses by solid-solid reactions

  • Jun. 10th, Mandalay Bay-Las Vegas, Int. Conf. On Powder Metallurgy & Particulate Materials, Environmentally Protecting Reactive Milling

  • May. 31th, EURESCO on Molecular Crystal Engineering, Aquafredda, Italien, Keynote Lecture, Solid-state molecular syntheses: complete reactions without auxiliaries based on the new solid-state mechanism

  • May, 26th-29th, Sociedade Brasileira de Quimica, 26th annual meeting, Distribution of serum solutes of latex PS-AAM as investigated by SNOM with monolayer particle samples

  • Apr. 17th, 7th Intern. Conf. on Chemistry and its Role in Development ICCRD’7, Mansoura & Sharm El-Sheikh, Ägypten, Syntheses of N-benzylidene-N’-(thiazol-2-yl)-hydrazine derivatives by solid-solid reactions; Mitglied des Organisations Komitees

  • Jan. 21, Münster, Rasterkraftmikroskopie in der Werkstoffwissenschaft,   Nanoscratching on Crystals

  • 2002
  • Dec. 12th, Leoben, Österreich, SNOM auf rauhen Oberflächen, ein funktionierendes Messverfahren für praktische Anwendungen
  • Nov. 21th, Düsseldorf (Germany)
    Medica 2002: Near-Field Microscopy on organic and biological samples (pdf-File, German)

  • Oct. 10th, Groton (USA)
    Symposium: Reactivity of Organic Molecules in the Solid State (ROM2S), Pfizer. Lecture: Application of AFM for Reactivity Studies in the Solid State

  • Sep. 19th, Hückelhoven (Germany)
    Surface: G. Kaupp, M.R. Naimi-Jamal, Mechanically induced anisotropic molecular migrations and anisotropic scratch resistance in organic crystals

  • Sep. 4th, Jena (Germany)
    G. Kaupp, M.R. Naimi-Jamal, Benign Syntheses in Large-scale Mills without Auxiliaries and Wastes

  • Aug. 2002, L`Aquila (Italien)
    G. Kaupp, S. Stepanenko, A. Herrmann, SSGRR 2002, l'Aquila: invited session: World-wide interaction with 3D-data

  • Mar. 10th-13th, 2002, Ulm (Germany)
    Organisation und Leitung des Symposiums: Signal Processing in Natural Sciences - Von Rohdaten zur Erkenntnis auf der IUK2002

  • Feb. 14th, 2002, Wetzlar (Germany)
    Mechanismus der Reflexionsverstärkung im optischen Nahfeld

  • Jan. 16th, 2002, Frankfurt (Germany)
    Dechema: Nachhaltige Festkörpersynthesen mit 100% Ausbeute durch reaktives Mahlen


  • Oct. 4-5th, 2001, Berlin (Germany)
    Nahfeldmikroskopie für rauhe organische und biologische Oberflächen

  • Sep. 25th, 2001, Würzburg (Germany)
    GDCh Jahrestagung 2001: Nahfeld Optik: Photochemie von morgen

  • Sep. 12-14th, 2001, Venice (Italy)
    IUPAC and OECD Workshop on Green Chemistry Education
    Word-File (ca. 387 kB)

  • Aug. 06-12th, 2001, L`Aquila (Italy)
    G. Kaupp, J. Boy, A. Herrmann, SSGRR 2001, l'Aquila: The publication of 3D-datasets for interactive acces beyond the visualization techniques
    PDF-File and Powerpoint-Presentation (incl. 3 movies) (Zipfile, ca. 8.57 MB)

  • Jul. 22-27th, 2001, Orlando (USA)
    Organization/Chairman of "3D-Data Interaction" with 10 invited Speakers

  • Apr. 06th, 2001, Mansoura (Egypt)
    Enviromentally benign syntheses with 100% yield

  • Apr. 03-07th, 2001, Kairo (Egypt)
    Solid-state photochemistry: new approaches based on new mechanistic insights

  • Mar. 15-16th, 2001, Münster (Germany)
    Abstandsabhängigkeit der optischen Nahfeldverstärkung

  • Mar. 11-14th, 2001, Trier (Germany)
    The Publication of Interactive 3D-Data in Chemistry; Leitung des Symposiums "3D-Daten"

  • Feb. 19-23rd, 2001, Innsbruck (Austria)
    IASTED; More than Mulktimedia: Data-Interaction; "Leitung des Symposiums Signal Processing"

  • Feb. 23rd, 2001, Erlangen (Germany)
    Optische Nahfeldmikroskopie f黵 rauhe biologische Oberfl鋍hen

  • Feb. 9th, 2001, Berlin (Germany)
    SNOM von prähistorischen Bakterien

  • Dez. 14-19th, 2000, Honolulu (USA)
    Pacifichem., Enviromentally benign solid-state reactions

  • Nov. 9th, 2000, Hückelhoven (Germany)
    Mechanically induced anisotropic molecular movements in organic crystals, indentation and scratch tests

  • Oct. 25th, 2000, Blaubeuren (Germany)
    Interaktive Publikation und Nutzung von 3D-Daten

  • Sep. 10-11th, 2000, Frankfurt (Germany)

  • Sep. 18-19th, 2000, Bielefeld (Germany)
    SNOM mit Biomaterialien

  • Jul. 24-27th, 2000, Dresden (Germany)
    Internet : SNOM, a new photophysical tool
    Link to interaktive VRML-Data for analysing and verifying the results

  • Jul. 23rd, 2000, Karlsruhe (Germany)
    Die Abhängigkeit des Nahfeldverstärkungsfaktors vom SNOM-Spitzenabstand unter Scherkraftdämpfungskontrolle

  • Jul. 19th-22nd, 2000, CCH - Congress Centrum Hamburg (Germany)
    SPS 2000, Second International Conference on Scanning Probe Spectroscopy
    SNOM by Near-Field Enhancement for Industrial Applications

  • Jul. 11th-13th, 2000, Hannover (Germany)
    EXPO 2000, Beyond the Age of Images: Dateninteraktives Publizieren von 3D-Daten (Ausstellung mit Demos und Powerpointpräsentationen)

  • Apr. 12th, 2000, Munich (Germany)
    Analytika 2000
    Exchange Formats in Chemistry - State of the Art and Perspectives

  • Mar. 14th-16th, 2000, Mainz (Germany)
    DI/VECOM - User Meeting
    Data interactive publishing of 3D-surfaces in VRML

  • Feb. 22nd, 2000, Bonn (Germany)
    More than Multimedia - Datainteraction

  • Jan. 31st, 2000, Duisburg (Germany)

  • Jan. 26nd, 2000, Bielefeld (Germany)
    AFM und SNOM auf biologischen Gewebeproben


  • Nov. 24th, 1999, Jena (Germany)
    Organische Festkörperchemie: Aktive Umweltschutztechnik

  • Nov. 08th, 1999, Blaubeuren (Germany)
    Vorstellung des Teilprojekts "Interaktive 3D Daten"

  • Nov. 04th, 1999, Oldenburg (Germany)
    Tag der Chemie, University of Oldenburg
    Optische Nahfeldmikroskopie: das Oldenburger Verfahren

  • Okt. 29th, 1999, Dresden (Germany)
    SNOM on Rough Surfaces Including the First Technical Applications

  • Okt. 29th, 1999, Dresden (Germany)
    Data-Interactive Publishing of 3D-Surfaces

  • Okt. 27th, 1999, TU Braunschweig (Germany)
    Organische Festkörperchemie: aktive Umweltschutztechnik

  • Sep. 30th, 1999, Frankfurt a.M. (Germany)
    Global-Info Meeting
    Zwischenbericht der SFM2

  • Sep. 16th, 1999, Rechenberg (Germany)
    Iminiumsalze in Festkörpersynthesen mit 100% Ausbeute (see "proceedings", 10 pp)

  • Aug. 24th, 1999, Tübingen (Germany)
    Rückstandfreie Festkörperreaktionen mit quantitativer Ausbeute (German Language)

  • Jul. 07th, 1999, Frankfurt a.M. (Germany)
    Quantitative, d.h. aufarbeitungsfreie Festkörpersynthese in der Kugelmühle

  • Jun. 15th, 1999, Bonn (Germany)
    Dateninteraktives Publizieren

  • Jun. 04th, 1999, Osaka (Japan)
    4. International Symposium on Functional Dyes

  • May 28th, 1999, Harima (Japan)
    New developements in solid-state organic chemistry

  • May 19th, 1999, Baltimore (USA)
    IEEE, ADL"99
    A Plea for Publishing without Loss of Data

  • May 05th, 1999, Frankfurt a.M. (Germany)
    Local Info Meeting
    Der Arbeitskreis Fachinformation in Oldenburg

  • Apr. 14th, 1999, Bonn (Germany)
    BMBF-Dechema Meeting
    Abfallfreie Synthesen (German Language)

  • Mar. 22nd, 1999, Jena (Germany)
    IUK-Meeting "Dynamic Documents"
    Publishing without loss of data

  • Feb. 03rd, 1999, TU Freiberg (Germany)
    AFM und SNOM bei organischen Festkörperreaktionen

  • Jan. 24th, 1999, San Jose (USA)
    SPIE's BiOS"99
    Scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) with uncoated tips


  • Nov. 17th, 1998, Bonn (Germany)
    Optical Near-field microscopy for Laserbiodynamics (in German Language)

  • Nov. 13th, 1998, Berlin (Germany)
    Zuse Zentrum
    New tools for all natural sciences, engineering, mathematics, medicine

  • Nov. 10th, 1998, Braunschweig (Germany)
    Aperturess SNOM: chemical contrast without topographical Artefacts (in German language)

  • Nov. 05th, 1998, Oldenburg (Germany)
    Tag der Chemie, University of Oldenburg
    Umweltfreundliche Synthesen mit 100% Ausbeute: die Produktionstechniken der Zukunft

  • Okt. 17th, 1998, Venice (Italy)
    OECD Workshop on Sustainable Chemistry
    Case-study on "waste-free" gas-solid reactions

  • Okt. 2nd, 1998, Frankfurt (Germany)
    Konzepte der Chemie für Global-Info

  • May 13th, 1998, Martinsried (Germany)
    SNOM with uncoated fibers (in German Language)

  • Mar. 01st, 1998, Bad Gastein (Austria)
    1st GAIPHOS, German, Austrian and Italian Sections of EPA

  • Feb. 20th, 1998, Frankfurt (Germany)
    Global Info: Anforderungen der Chemie an hypermediale Visualisierungen
    Interactive Publishing (in German language)


  • Oct. 16th-19th, 1997, Harima Science Garden City (Japan)
    First International Conference on Material and Life Sciences

  • Oct. 08th-09th, 1997, Osaka (Japan)
    27th Symposium on Structural Organic Chemistry

  • Aug. 03rd-08th, 1997, Warsaw (Poland)
    XVIIIth International Conference on Photochemistry ICP

  • Jul. 13th-18th, 1997, Stony Brook, New York (USA)
    AFM and SNOM in organic solid-state chemistry

  • Jul. 13th-18th, 1997, Stony Brook, New York (USA)
    100% yield in 300 gas-solid reactions covering 22 reaction types: a benign option for industrial solid-state production

  • Mar. 23rd-25th, 1997, Düsseldorf (Germany)
    Optische Nahfeldmikroskopie (SNOM): Neue Oberflächenanalytik beim Studium umweltgerechter Produktionsverfahren

  • Feb. 13th, 1997, Jerusalem (Israel)
    Near-Field Optics 4 (NFO-4)


  • Sep. 10th, 1996, Peking (China)
    SNOM-Contrast and -Lithography on Organic Surfaces

  • Apr. 24th, 1996, Munich (Germany)
    Analytika 96

  • Apr. 11th, 1996, Oxford (England)
    Annual Scanned Probe Microscopy

  • Mar. 03rd, 1996, Düsseldorf (Germany)
    Optische Nahfeldmikroskopie (SNOM): Chemischer Kontrast mit kalten Tips